Humans are naturally blessed by a defense system called as immune system that prevents or at least reduces the risk of infectious diseases. The word immunity is derived from “Immunitas” which is a Latin word meaning “freedom from disease”.
Mainly there are two types of immunity.
- Innate immunity
- Acquired immunity
The difference between innate and acquired immunity is outlined below;
Difference in Definition:
The immunity which is present by birth without having prior exposure to pathogenic microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and etc is called innate immunity. On the other hand acquired immunity develops only when our body is exposed to any antigenic substance.
Difference in Other Names:
Innate immunity is also called as natural immunity or in-born immunity but adaptive immunity is the second name of acquired immunity.
Difference in Specificity:
There is a non specific and limited response induced by innate immunity against pathogens but acquired immunity produces specific type of response such as adaptive immunity against S. Aureus.
Difference in Presence:
Innate immunity is always present but acquired immunity depends on external environment.
Difference in Prior Exposure:
There is no need to have prior exposure in order to get benefits from innate immunity but it is necessary in case of acquired immunity.
Difference in Response:
Innate immunity acts as a first line of defense in our body and it has rapid response whenever any pathogenic substance enters but response of acquired immunity is little delayed and generally occurs after 1 to 2 weeks or 5-6 days. Usually the subsequent response is more rapid against the same type of pathogen.
Difference in Memory Cells:
The cells of innate immunity are unable to memorize the antigens but it is possible in case of acquired immunity as they also posses’ memory cells.
Difference in Potency:
The response of innate immunity is less potent in comparison to acquired immunity which shows highest potency.
Difference in Cells:
The components of innate immunity are:
- Physical barriers
- Chemical barriers
- Natural killers cells
- Plasma protein
- Dendritic cells.
The components of acquired immunity are as following:
- Humaral immunity (Mediated by B cells which produce antibodies
- Cell mediated immunity (Mediated by T cells such as T helper cells and cytotoxic cells)
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