Malaria and typhoid are two different diseases but sometime physicians are unable to diagnose them properly due to similarity in certain sign and symptoms.
Difference in Causative Agent:
Typhoid fever is caused by a gram negative bacteria named as salmonella typhi whereas malaria is a protozoal disease occur due to different species of Plasmodium such as P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
Difference in Transmission:
Transmission of malaria is dependent upon a vector ( a bite resulted from female Anophlese mosquito) but typhoid can be transmitted by feco-oral route via contaminated food or water because the Salmonella typhi is commonly present in unhealthy conditions and dirty water.
Difference in Symptoms:
They symptoms of both typhoid and malaria differ considerably. For example in the case of malaria patient can experience nausea, vomiting, chills, fevers and diarrhea sometime but symptoms of typhoid are different in different stages. Mainly there are four stages of typhoid. Single stage comprises of seven days. During the first stage patient can suffer high grade fever, abdominal pain, bleeding from nose, bradicardia, cough and tiredness. In the second stage, fever, reduced heart rate, diarrhea or constipation, confusional state and rose spots on trunk occur. In the third stage patient may have some complications and the last stage is the stage of recovery.
Difference in Complications:
Typhoid and malaria have different types of complications. Such as in case of typhoid, the patient may experience peritonitis, gut bleeding, endocarditis, agitation, encephalitis and etc. Some specific complications of malaria include renal impairment, retinopathy, cerebral malaria, convulsions, coma and death.
Difference Diagnostic Tests:
Different tests are being performed to diagnose both malaria and typhoid but it is easier to diagnose malaria in comparison to typhoid. For typhoid following tests are recommended
- Widal test
- Typhidot test
- Bone marrow test
- Stool test
For malaria following types tests are being done;
- Complete blood count (CBC)
- Malarial Parasite (MP) test
- Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based upon the microscopic evaluation of causative agent.
Difference in Treatment:
For the treatment of malaria different types of anti-malarial drugs ( amodiaquine, lumefantrine, mefloquine or sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) are used but for typhoid treatment, antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and olfloxacin are commonly prescribed.
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