Different types of prostanoids can be easily synthesized in the body by using an enzyme named as cylcooxygenase (COX). These prostanoids including prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxane are important biological mediators that play crucial role in the development of pain and inflammation in the body. So it is possible to get relief from pain and inflammation by inhibiting the COX enzyme.
There are three different types of COX enzymes such as COX1, COX2 and COX3. They are similar in different aspects and have some differences too. The difference between COX1 and COX2 is outlined below.
Difference in Name:
COX-1 is also called as constitutive enzyme because it is produced by a cell under all types of physiological conditions. The amount at which constitutive enzymes are produced remain constant without regard of substrate concentration and physiological demand. On the other hand COX-2 is an inducible enzyme as it is produced under certain specific conditions like inflammation.
Difference in Locations:
COX-1 is commonly found in the kidney, stomach and platelets whereas COX-2 is located in macrophages, leukocytes and fibroblasts.
Difference in Functions:
COX-1 play important role in housekeeping such as it protects gastric mucosa, regulate gastric acid and maintain normal functions of the kidney by stimulating prostaglainds. COX-2 is involved in the synthesis of prostaglandins that causes pain and inflammation in the body. Other function of COX-2 are protection from
Difference in Production:
The stimulation of COX-1 enzyme is done on a continuous basis by the body but COX-2 enzyme didn’t present at normal condition and produced only at the time of need. The stimulation of COX-2 enzymes is dependent upon cytokines.
Difference in Usefulness:
COX-1 enzymes are protective in nature and therefore are useful for the body. So there is no need to inhibit them but COX-2 enzymes play an important role in inflammation and pyrexia. So it is desirous to inhibit COX-2 enzymes.
Difference in Inhibition:
There are different types of drugs that are used to inhibit COX-2 enzyme including Celecoxib. Nonsteriodial antiinflammatoru drugs inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes.
According to some studies COX-2 enzyme has also role in angiogenesis.
- Foye WO, Lemke TL. Foye’s principles of medicinal chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.
- Bhagavan NV. Medical biochemistry. Academic Press, 2002.
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