Alkaline Phosphatases can be a list of enzymes found primarily the liver (isoenzyme ALP-1) and bone (isoenzyme ALP-2). There’s also a small amount created by cells lining the intestines (isoenzyme ALP-3), the placenta, plus the kidney (inside proximal convoluted tubules).
What’s measured in the blood will be the total level of alkaline phosphatases released out there tissues in the blood. Because the name implies, this enzyme is ideal at an alkaline pH (a pH of 10), thereby the enzyme itself is inactive inside blood. Alkaline phosphatases act by splitting off phosphorus (an acidic mineral) creating an alkaline pH.
The liver makes more ALP than the other organs like bones. Some conditions increase the amounts of ALP within the blood. These conditions include rapid bone growth (during puberty), bone disease (osteomalacia or Paget’s disease), or maybe a ailment that affects calcium level is in the blood (hyperparathyroidism), vitamin D deficiency, or damaged liver cells.
Purpose of measuring ALP is given below.
- ALP test is commonly prescribed by physicians to determine an abnormality in the liver. Few signs and symptoms of liver disease include jaundice, belly pain, nausea, and vomiting.
- It can also be done to determine toxic effects of some hepatotoxic drugs like aminoglycosides.
- To determine bone related diseases such as rickets, osteomalacia, bone tumors, Paget’s disease, or too much of the hormone that controls bone growth (parathyroid hormone). The ALP level enables you to check how well treatment for Paget’s disease or maybe a vitamin D deficiency is working.
The normal values right here-termed as reference range-are just a guide. These ranges vary from lab to lab, plus your lab might have another range for which’s normal. Your lab report should have the range your lab uses. Also, your doctor will evaluate your results by determining your health and certain other factors. Consequently something that falls outside the normal values right here may still be normal in your case or your lab.
The normal range of ALP is 20 to 140 IU/L (international units per liter). The value of ALP is higher in children as compare to adults because of bones that are still in growing phase and produce higher quantity of ALP (as high as 500 IU/L.). Due to this reason this test is not recommended in children
Higher-than-normal ALP levels may be due to:
- Biliary obstruction
- Bone disease
- Eating a fatty meal if you have blood type O or B
- Healing fracture
- Liver disease
- Osteoblastic bone tumors
- Paget’s disease
Lower-than-normal ALP levels (hypophosphatasemia) may be due to:
- Protein deficiency
- Wilson’s disease
Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
- Alcoholic liver disease (hepatitis/cirrhosis)
- Biliary stricture
- Giant cell (temporal, cranial) arteritis
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
- Renal cell carcinoma
- Berk PD, Korenblat KM. Approach to the patient with jaundice or abnormal liver test results. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 150.
- Pratt DS. Liver chemistry and function tests. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran’s Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 73.
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