Scientists are now trying to get newer potential targets to kill organism. On such effort has been made by investigators of Florida Atlantic University’s Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine. Researchers have claimed that they have found a unique mechanism in bacteria that could sever as the potential target for developing newer antibiotics against number of disease including AIDS and soft tissue infections ( respiratory and urogenital tracts), which are currently difficult to treat.
This research was published in Journal of Biological Chemistry with title named as “Novel One-step Mechanism for tRNA 3′-End Maturation by the Exoribonuclease RNase of Mycoplasma gentialium”.
Li and Alluri said that survival of every organism is based on genes that encode the production of different proteins. This whole process is dependent upon tRNA which involves transportation of protein molecules. tRNA is initially derived from its progenitor that also posses certain extra parts. So its necessary for tRNA to undergo processing in order to remove extra parts. This processing may occur at any end either 3’ end or either 5’end.
Currently it has been discovered that how the processing of tRNA via 5’end occur and noble prize was given to the discoverer. It is very difficult to understand the complex mechanisms of processing occur at 3’end. This type of processing has been seen in those organisms that poses cells with nucleus as humans.
“Intriguingly, bacteria appear to process the 3′ end of tRNA very differently,” said Alluri. “And we are still trying to reveal the various enzymes called RNases, which remove the 3′ extra parts of tRNA precursors.”
There are certain enzymes that can cut RNA to convert it in to tRNA named as RNAses. Different RNAses have different mechanisms to do so as some can cut in the middle, while others cut at 3’end.
“Knowing how tRNA is processed in different types of bacteria is important not only for understanding how bacteria live, but also for developing novel antibiotics that specifically control bacterial pathogens,” said Li.
Alluri and Li’s have worked on Mycoplasma genitalium. It does not posses any RNAse for processing of 3’end tRNA.
“What we have discovered with Mycoplasma genitalium is that it uses a completely different RNase called RNase R to process the 3′ end of tRNA,” said Alluri. “RNase R can trim the 3′ extra part of a tRNA precursor to make a ‘functional’ tRNA. It is even smart enough to recognize some structural features in the tRNA and tell where the trimming has to stop without harming the mature tRNA.”
“Importantly, blocking the function of RNase R in mycoplasmas can stop protein production and kill the bacteria, making RNase R an excellent target of new antibiotics for treatment of mycoplasma infection,” said Li.
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